Marcus Antonius’ Funeral Oration for Iulius Caesar: Fragments and Testimonies in Classical Literature: Modes of Citation and Representation


  • Nurit Shoval-Dudai The Academy of the Hebrew Language and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev


fragments, reported speech, Classical literature, Marcus Antonius, Iulius Caesar's eulogy, Cicero's Philippics, Octavian's propaganda, Roman history


Marcus Antonius' lost works serve as instructive case studies to review ancient citing practices. His eulogy in honour of Iulius Caesar, the exchange of political invective with Cicero, and the war of propaganda against Octavian, illustrate different modes of reported speech or text. These works, which reflect the political strife of the late Roman Republic, enable us to reveal specific characteristics of testimonies and fragments.
The importance of literary remains for the study of the ancient world has long been acknowledged by classical scholars. Nevertheless, the practice of collecting fragments and testimonies still lacks systematic theorization. This study aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of fragments and testimonies and classify them into their different types.